You need the source IP address, As the reply will come to that. This will remain constant in the packet through out its travel. This need not be a valid one also. Like in case of IP address Spoofing. The source mac address will be required for the next hop router , not beyond that.
If the next hop is seeing you for the first time, It'll update its routing table accordingly using your IP address and MAC address. If the next hop is unable to resolve the destination IP address or unable to find a path, it will decide to drop the packet and will notify you the same. But if it finds a path and forwards the packet, then it'll replace its own MAC address at the source MAC address field.
But the source IP address remains unchanged in this case. It'll also change in case of a proxy. Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Collectives on Stack Overflow.
Learn more. Ask Question. Asked 6 years, 3 months ago. Modified 4 years, 10 months ago. Viewed 1k times. Improve this question. Basant kumar Bhala. Basant kumar Bhala Basant kumar Bhala 45 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 8 8 bronze badges.
Add a comment. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. Improve this answer. Ron Maupin Ron Maupin 5, 4 4 gold badges 24 24 silver badges 29 29 bronze badges. IP doesn't need MAC addresses. IP can run on many layer-2 protocols, some of which don't use MAC addresses. Within an ethernet network LAN , you most certainly need MAC addresses since that is how the ethernet frame is delivered to the destination.
Also, MAC addresses will not be seen on a different network. Yeah you are right. But for layman language, it is difficult to understand layer wise concept. The problem is that what you wrote is wrong and misleading. Support for all Windows architectures x86, x, and ARM : Npcap has always supported both Windows bit and bit Intel x86 platforms.
But starting with version 1. This allows PC's to use the same power-efficient mobile chipsets as smartphones for all-day battery life and always-on LTE connectivity. Extra Security : Npcap can optionally be restricted so that only Administrators can sniff packets.
This is conceptually similar to UNIX, where root access is generally required to capture packets. WinPcap compatibility : Software written for WinPcap is generally source-code compatible with WinPcap so it simply needs to be recompiled with the Npcap SDK to receive all of Npcap's performance, compatability, and security benefits. In fact there is even some binary compatability—software compiled with the WinPcap SDK often still works with modern Npcap. We don't suggest relying on that, however, since compilers and other stack technology has changed dramatically since the last WinPcap SDK release in When porting legacy WinPcap software to Npcap, we do suggest a few minor changes , mostly to ensure your software uses Npcap in preference to WinPcap on systems with both libraries installed.
Raw monitor mode More details can be found here. We've also created a feature comparison between Npcap and WinPcap. The free version of Npcap may be used but not externally redistributed on up to 5 systems free license details. Simply run the executable installer.
The full source code for each release is available, and developers can build their apps against the SDK. The improvements for each release are documented in the Npcap Changelog. The latest development source is in our Github source repository.
Windows XP and earlier are not supported; you can use WinPcap for these versions. This special version of Npcap includes enterprise features such as the silent installer and commercial support as well as special license rights allowing customers to redistribute Npcap with their products or to install it on more systems within their organization with easy enterprise deployment.
Like Article. MAC protocol is the first protocol layer above the Physical Layer in ad hoc. The primary task of any MAC protocol is to control the access of the nodes to shared medium. Classification of MAC protocols : These are as following below. No guarantees. Contention-based protocols with reservation mechanisms — Bandwidth is reserved for transmission. Guarantees can be given. Contention-based protocols with scheduling mechanisms — Distributed scheduling is done between nodes.
Other protocols — Combine multiple features of other protocols. It can also use a completely new approach. Recommended Articles. Article Contributed By :. Easy Normal Medium Hard Expert. Writing code in comment? It is estimated that network traffic must be less than 40 percent of the bus capacity for the network to operate efficiently.
If distances are long, time lags occur that may result in inappropriate carrier sensing, and hence collisions. This method is not popular because it requires excessive overhead that reduces performance. Ethernet : IEEE In the Ethernet standard, there are two modes of operation: half-duplex and full-duplex modes.
The main disadvantages of the half-duplex are the efficiency and distance limitation, in which the link distance is limited by the minimum MAC frame size. This restriction reduces the efficiency drastically for high-rate transmission. Therefore, the carrier extension technique is used to ensure the minimum frame-size of bytes in Gigabit Ethernet to achieve a reasonable link distance.
Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables :. The Ethernet System consists of three basic elements :. The IEEE Each Ethernet-equipped computer operates independently of all other stations on the network: there is no central controller.
All stations attached to an Ethernet are connected to a shared signaling system, also called the medium. To send data a station first listens to the channel, and when the channel is idle the station transmits its data in the form of an Ethernet frame, or packet. After each frame transmission, all stations on the network must contend equally for the next frame transmission opportunity. Access to the shared channel is determined by the medium access control MAC mechanism embedded in the Ethernet interface located in each station.
As each Ethernet frame is sent onto the shared signal channel, all Ethernet interfaces look at the destination address. If the destination address of the frame matches with the interface address, the frame will be read entirely and be delivered to the networking software running on that computer. All other network interfaces will stop reading the frame when they discover that the destination address does not match their own address. IEEE The topology of the network can include groups of workstations connected by long trunk cables.
These workstations branch from hubs in a star configuration, so the network has both a bus and star topology. Token bus topology is well suited to groups of users that are separated by some distance. The broadband characteristics of the The token and frames of data are passed from one station to another following the numeric sequence of the station addresses.
Thus, the token follows a logical ring rather than a physical ring. The last station in numeric order passes the token back to the first station. The token does not follow the physical ordering of workstation attachment to the cable. Station 1 might be at one end of the cable and station 2 might be at the other, with station 3 in the middle. While token bus is used in some manufacturing environments, Ethernet and token ring standards have become more prominent in the office environment.
This paper determines packet level performance measures of a MAC protocol for a wireless ATM local area network. A key characteristic of the MAC protocol is. In this paper we propose a decentralized medium access control (MAC) scheme to coordinate the access of multiple transmitters adopting a multi-packet. (MAC) packets in wireless networks (IEEE b wireless local area network standard), over wireless networks where packet losses are also due to.